The EU’s top environmental official alerted his colleagues that motor manufacturers were gaming European emissions tests more than two years before US authorities uncovered widespread cheating by Volkswagen, according to internal European Commission documents obtained by the Financial Times.据英国《金融时报》获得的欧盟委员会(European Commission)内部文件,欧盟最低环境官员早已曾警告他的同僚,汽车制造商们在操控欧洲尾气废气检测,他收到这番警告的时间比美国监管机构找到大众汽车(Volkswagen)不存在广泛作弊不道德早于了两年多。Despite the warning sounded by Janez Potocnik, the then EU environment commissioner, Brussels did not take swift action to crack down on the practice but instead left in place an earlier plan that allowed the emissions loopholes exploited by Volkswagen to remain through to 2017.尽管时任欧盟环境专员的乔纳兹珀多尼克(Janez Potocnik)收到了警告,但欧盟并没很快采取措施压制汽车制造商的这种作法,而是之后实行一项到2017年累计的计划,该计划使大众以求利用废气检测的漏洞。

Volkswagen has now suspended about 10 senior executives as part of its inquiry into the crippling emissions scandal that has rocked Europe’s biggest carmaker. VW last month admitted, in response to the US investigation, to using an illegal piece of software in its diesel engines to cheat in tests for dangerous nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.在对废气不实丑闻展开调查的过程中,大众已停止了约10名高管的职务。丑闻已使这家欧洲仅次于汽车制造商元气大伤。作为对美国方面的调查的对此,大众上月否认在柴油发动机中用于了非法软件,在氮氧化物(NOx)废气检测中作弊。In a letter to Antonio Tajani, the European commissioner in charge of industrial policy, written in February 2013, Mr Potocnik said ministers from several EU countries believed the “significant discrepancy” between how cars performed in the real world compared with in the testing laboratory was the “primary reason” air quality standards were not falling to levels required by EU law.在2013年2月寄给负责管理工业政策的欧盟专员安东尼奥吠贾尼(Antonio Tajani)的一封信中,珀多尼克回应,几个欧盟国家的部长们指出,汽车在实质上路驾驶员中的展现出与在检测实验室中的展现出不存在“极大差异”,是空气质量标准没降到欧盟法律规定水平的“主要原因”。

“There are widespread concerns that performance [of cars] has been tailored tightly to compliance with the test cycle in disregard of the dramatic increase in emissions outside that narrow scope,” Mr Potocnik wrote. Cars are required to comply with EU emissions limits “in normal driving conditions”, he wrote.珀多尼克写到:“人们广泛担忧,(汽车的)展现出严苛遵照检测周期展开调整,而坚决在这一狭小周期以外排放量的大幅度减少。”他写到,汽车在“长时间驾驶员状况”下应遵从欧盟废气容许。He urged Mr Tajani to quickly propose new measures to strike back at carmakers, such as withdrawing emissions approvals for entire model lines and requiring “remedial action” from manufacturers.他呼吁塔贾尼很快明确提出新的措施压制汽车制造商,例如中止全部汽车型号的废气许可,拒绝制造商采行“补救措施”。


People involved in the talks said concerns at the time centred on legal techniques used by manufacturers to improve their results, rather than on the possibility carmakers might be breaking a 2007 EU law using software, known as “defeat devices”, that VW has admitted using.参予辩论的人士回应,当时主要忧虑的是汽车制造商利用合法技术提高废气结果,而非汽车制造商有可能利用被称作“欺诈装置”的软件,违反欧盟2007年实施的一项法律。大众汽车否认利用了这种欺诈软件。At the centre of the internal commission wrangling was the discrepancy between NOx emissions recorded in laboratory tests conducted by regulatory authorities and the much higher levels detected during road tests.欧盟委员会内部争议的核心是监管部门的实验室检测中所记录的氮氧化物废气水平与实际道路检测出有的废气水平不存在差异,后者要低得多。


The discrepancies were highlighted as early as 2011 by the commission’s joint research centre . Those same irregularities, when uncovered by US investigators earlier this year, led the US Environmental Protection Agency to confront VW directly, leading to the admission it had been cheating.欧盟委员会的合作研究中心早在2011年就特别强调了这一差异。今年早些时候,美国调查人员找到了这些不法行为,导致美国环保署(Environmental Protection Agency)与大众汽车正面对付,促成大众汽车否认不存在欺诈不道德。_lols10下注。